Welcome to our paintings in progress page for
artist Ivan Berryman. This page features the artwork that is being
worked on right now by Ivan, and will soon be available to
purchase. Whenever Ivan can afford the time to supply us with
photos of his work in progress, we will post them on this page.
working in his studio, researching for his next painting. On the
wall is his painting of WW1 German Ace Josef Jacobs, now sold.
Current Work(s) in Progress
/ Latest Painting
in Arms - Manfred and Lothar von Richthofen
It’s a while since I last posted a Work in
Progress and, as I am about to start on a new painting of Manfred von Richthofen,
maybe this is an opportunity to let you get an insight into how a painting like
this happens, from start to finish.
It is important to establish very early on what
the painting is going to be of and how the subject can best be tackled, both
from the point of view of practicality and drama. It is fortunate for an artist
that the great Red Baron left behind him a legacy of so many great opportunities
for aviation artists, his 80 confirmed victories each offering a new angle, a
new perspective and a variety of backdrops.
The brief here was to create a scene that
involved a number of layers, a composition that allowed the eye to look beyond
the obvious foreground dramas to other elements, other stories, that were
unfolding beyond. I immediately began my research by reading up on the Baron’s
many triumphs and I came upon the perfect combat for my painting, von
Richthofen’s 41st victory on 13th April 1917.
On this morning, five RE8s of 59 Sqn, RFC, took
off from their base at La Bellevue on a photographic sortie, A3203 carrying a
camera, with the other four flying as escorts. Spads of 19 Sqn and some 52 Sqn
Fe.2s were to have joined them as fighter cover, but the rendezvous was never
made and the RE8s found themselves alone. For some unknown reason, this flight
of aircraft seemed to have drifted some way north of their intended target –
and into the clutches of a group of Jasta 11 Albatros scouts, led by none other
than Baron Manfred von Richthofen.
In a relatively short combat, all five RE8s were
shot down by their German opponents, one by the Red Baron himself and two by his
brother, Lothar, claiming his fourth and fifth victims and thus becoming an ace,
the others being downed by Festner and Wolff in similar aircraft.
This action appealed to me for a number of
reasons: Firstly, it provided me with the perfect scenario for my painting.
Secondly, it would be an opportunity to paint Manfred in one of his Albatros
scouts instead of the Fokker DR.1 Triplane for which he is perhaps better known
(although 56 of his 80 victories were achieved in the Albatros). And, thirdly,
this would be a chance to depict the two von Richthofen brothers in combat
together.This day’s combat was significant for both of them – Lothar
becoming an ace for the first time and Manfred at last beating the score of his
mentor, Oswald Boelcke, who had been killed having attained 40 victories.
Further to this, in a later action that same day, Manfred would score a further
two kills, the first time he had achieved a ‘triple’.
My immediate idea was to depict the two brothers
diving onto the flight of RE8s with the pitted landscape of the terrain near the
Scarpe River some distance below, thus creating the layered effect that I
Having drawn the outlines of the aircraft onto
the primed 24”x36” linen canvas, I have masked them out, as can be seen in
Photograph 1. This is a very temporary measure, but it does allow me to work
aggressively on the background without losing my perspective and not having to
worry about covering any of the drawing with careless brushstrokes. I also find,
as I have mentioned in previous WiPs, that it is far easier to achieve the sort
of detachment that is necessary when painting a flying object if you can just
‘attack’ the background and treat it as a separate painting. Hopefully,
you’ll see what I mean as this painting progresses.
In Photograph 2, I am applying a ‘slurry
coat’ of a murky brown colour over the entire canvas. This will form the base
colour for the ground below the RE.8s and will be extensively re-worked to
create that ravaged landscape look that we are all so familiar with from aerial
photographs of that time. It is my intention to keep it dark so that the red
fuselage of Manfred’s aircraft will stand out against the background, as will
the varnished plywood fuselage and light blue undersurfaces of Lothar’s
3 shows the entire canvas now given a random texture using a mixture of
paint and turpentine. The effect is achieved by applying this very thin
mixture using a variety of similar colours over the whole canvas while
it is still quite wet, thus creating an uneven, mottled surface. Here
and there, the paint and turpentine curdle, which also gives an
excellent effect. In Photograph 4, you can see me at work on this stage,
using about a three-inch brush! Remember that I am trying to capture the
appearance of a totally devastated, ravaged terrain, so this scumble
technique works really well.
were dug in a zig-zag pattern when it was discovered that a single shell
blast in a straight trench could wipe out a great many men. By putting
sharp angles in the trench system, the effects of the explosion were
considerably reduced and I am keen to depict this in my painting.
Photograph 5 shows me painting in the trenches – still while the paint
on the rest of the canvas is quite wet. These trench systems could be
enormously complicated, but I have chosen to go for a simple section
here in order to avoid causing a distraction to the eye when the
painting is complete. I am mindful that this is primarily a painting of
the Baron’s Albatros and there is always a danger of over-complicating
I add the many shell craters and the chalky soil thrown up by the blast
that created them. After heavy rain many of these craters would have
water in them, so I have painted in some pools, reflecting the sky high
above. I have added a road and a number of broken trees – just stumps,
actually – to make the scene slightly more interesting. It is vitally
important at this stage that I establish exactly which direction the
light is coming from as this will dictate the shadows of the trees and
the shaded side of the bomb craters.
can appreciate now, looking at Photograph 6, why the masking was so
important as it would have been almost impossible to achieve continuity
of the landscape if I had been trying to preserve the drawn lines of the
main aircraft in the painting. This is the whole canvas, now showing the
trench system, the shell holes and the road. The next stage will be to
strip away the masking before the paint dries fully so that work can
begin on the next layer of the painting, the five RE8s.
So, in Photograph 7, here
is the whole canvas now with all the masking removed to reveal my original
drawing beneath. The canvas is set aside for a while to dry, ready for the next
Photograph 8 shows me just
starting to block in the wings of the RE8s, working on all five aircraft
simultaneously to ensure continuity. Very little attention is paid at this stage
to lighting or texture – just get some colour onto those wings and tailplanes.
I usually work on wings and tailplanes together as they are all horizontal
surfaces and will reflect the light in similar ways as an aircraft pitches and
In Photograph 9 you can see
all five aircraft with their wings now a solid colour.
Because I will be using a
technique later to add the sheen to the fabric-covered wings, the next stage is
to get the roundels painted on. On a subject this size, a tiny brush and a
steady hand are required to apply all the national markings – ten of them, in
this case, as seen in Photograph 10. RFC upper wing roundels were outlined with
a thin white line and it would be almost impossible to paint such a fine line
around a blue circle as these RE8s measure only about 5cm from wingtip to
wingtip, so I find that the best way to achieve this is to first paint a white
circle, then paint the blue on top of it, leaving a fine white outline. Needless
to say, I follow this with another white inner circle and add the red centre
last of all. Repeat 10 times.
Photograph 11 shows the
quintet all now sporting their national insignia, but looking very flat.
In Photograph 12, big
changes have taken place. With the roundels dry, I now make a thin mixture of
bluish-white paint and turpentine and brush this lightly over the wings and
roundels to create a soft sheen. Of course, not every one of the aircraft is in
the exact same position, so this sheen may be more intense on one aircraft than
another and also perhaps on the right wing more than the left. The aircraft in
the top right of this group is tipped to the left slightly, so his right wing is
catching the light more than the rest, for example.
Also visible in this
photograph is the application of the shadows on the lower wings, the struts and
the shadow cast by the fin and rudder on the tailplane.
Other tiny details have
been put in place, too, and the wings on all of the RE8s are more or less
complete now. I have added a 6 inch ruler to this shot so that you can get some
idea of the size of these tiny aircraft which really are at the limit of what is
It is not a major step to
paint in the fuselages and complete this section of the painting, adding just
the slightest suggestion of the aircrews inside as they are beneath the dark
shadow cast by the upper wings. I did, however, take the trouble to show that
the centre aircraft is carrying a downward-facing camera on the side of the
Observer’s cockpit, although it is very hard to pick it out in these
photographs. I promise to photograph this painting more carefully when it is
finished and show some of the details in all their tiny glory.
So that’s about it for the RE8s.
The addition of a little staining from the exhaust stacks, a hint of spinning
propellers and they’re in the bag. Photograph 13 shows the finished item.
will be the Albatros of Lothar von Richthofen rolling away to the right – and
you will see, as this painting progresses to the main subjects, just how
insignificant everything that has gone before seems to become as the eye will
always be drawn to – and settle upon – the two larger aircraft in the
painting. And that is when the illusion of height and depth comes into its
Richthofen flew many aircraft during his time with Jasta 11 and a great
many variations of his personalised colour schemes make painting his
machine on a particular date quite difficult. At the time of his
brother’s death a year later than the action I am depicting, he had
opted for a colour scheme on his Fokker Dr.1 that comprised mainly
bright yellow which, when combined with the compulsory red nose and
struts of Jasta 11, made his aircraft quite distinguishable. Evidence
suggests however that in April 1917, his Albatros was pretty much
painted in a standard factory finish for the time. Remember that Lothar
was not yet an ace and thus may not have been eligible to decorate his
aircraft to his own designs. This was not a rule, but was generally
accepted protocol. The factory finish comprised a varnished fuselage
with pale blue/grey undersides on the wings and the standard green/brown
camouflage on the upper surfaces. A broad red fuselage band was added
forward of the cross and this is the scheme that I have opted to
In photograph 14, I
have painted the wings, tailplane and axle fairing in the light blue,
introducing a small amount of ochre where the fuselage colour is going
to be reflected in the taut fabric at certain areas. A little
‘weathering’ ensures that the aircraft starts to look used and some
mud and oil streaks are applied beneath the axle and on the elevator.
The first of the interplane struts is added next, as are the ailerons
and hinges, but the cabane struts are not painted in at this stage as
they will need to be rooted to the fuselage when it is completed. In the
photograph, a No3 Rigger brush is being used to pick out the leading
edge of the tailplane in pure white where the sun will be catching the
Photograph 15 shows
more masking in place so that I can work vigorously on the fuselage and
in Photograph 16 I am applying a uniform coat of the off-yellow that
will form the basis of the fuselage colour.
17 & 18 show
first a sheen of light being applied to pick out the rounded form as the
sun strikes it and then a darker colour on the undersides to introduce
some contrast to the unlit belly of the Albatros. Notice that I am not
going too heavy with the shadows as the overall ambience of this
painting is one of misty, gentle sun. I will probably go a bit heavier
with the lighting when I come to Manfred’s red aircraft as that will
be right in the foreground and a bit of drama won’t go amiss there!
red band is added to the fuselage next, in Photograph 19, as well as the
national insignia (old style crosses in 1917) and the light and shade is
applied to tie it all together.
Now I can paint in the cabane struts and
some of the rigging is added too, as seen in Photograph 20. More
detailing is steadily applied – some panel lines, some oil stains
beneath the fuselage and some general wear and tear caused by the
ravages of war, weather and general human clumsiness! The tail skid is
the penultimate addition to the fuselage before I add what little
shadows there should be. The aircraft is rolling over and the sun is
shining precisely between the upper and lower wings, so I choose not to
make too much of wing shadows. But it occurs to me that the ‘V’
interplane struts of the left wings will almost certainly cast a shadow
on the fuselage somewhere. I’m going to have to go away and think
about this very carefully.
Into the final stages of Lothar’s aircraft now. In Photograph 21
you can see that the lower wings have been painted using, more or less,
the exact same techniques as for the upper wings. Quite a lot of
additional staining is added inboard where mud has been thrown up by the
wheels and the wing attachment points, access panels and the wheels
themselves are applied before the struts of the undercarriage go
Photograph 22 shows the Albatros substantially complete and I have
now added the shadow cast by the interplane struts, plus some stenciling
beneath the cockpit which is, sadly not visible in these photographs. As
I said earlier, I will take the time to photograph the finished painting
in much higher resolution and in some detail at the end.
now to the main subject of this painting, Albatros D.III Nr.2253/17 and,
straight away, something that has been bugging me from the start needs
to be put right. To obtain this angle, I employed my usual technique of
photographing a 1/32nd scale model (see my WiP for The Final Curtain, elsewhere on this website) and I had kicked the
rudder round slightly on the model to make it a bit more interesting. On
reflection however, it occurred to me that the rudder position was all
wrong for the manoeuvre that I am depicting here, so a bit of rudder
correction is necessary first of all before I start on anything else. It
is so often the case that something in a composition just doesn’t
quite gel and it’s not always immediately obvious what it is. Very
often, it’s a case of going home and coming back the next day with a
fresh eye. That’s exactly what happened in this case. I walked into my
studio, looked at the canvas and thought, “that’s not right”. So
it’s out with the white paint, as can be seen in Photograph 23, and
the error is instantly corrected.
begins in earnest with the wings and these are complex things to paint
as I need to show the curvature of the aerofoil shape and the ribs that
form the structure beneath the taut fabric. Over the 100-plus WW1
aviation paintings that I have done, I have established a technique that
seems to work for me, even if it is a little unconventional. Remember
that I am entirely self-taught and have never really paid much attention
to traditional methods or those of other artists so, if you are
something of a puritan, look away now. But this is how I do it and, if
the end result is what is intended, who cares how I get there?
Photograph 24 shows some masking in place
around the wings and the first job is to get the basic colours of the
wings applied. I pay no attention at this stage to lighting or shape at
all, just as I did with the tiny RE8s earlier in this WiP.
Next, the black crosses are applied as in
Photograph 25 and then the white edges (Photograph 26), taking care to
note that the left aileron is slightly raised, so the cross appears a
little distorted toward the trailing edge of the wing. The ‘white’
in this case is not strictly pure, more a very light blue-grey. This is
because I need to leave the pure white for highlights. If you’ve
already painted something white after all, how will you apply the
sparkles? It’s like starting to play a tune on a piano at the top end.
Where will you go when you need to go up another octave?
Now I can begin to show the form of the wing
and I again use my technique of brushing a thin coat of turpentine over
the entire wing (once it has dried!). Using a wide brush, I then apply
the same blue-grey colour along the whole length of the wing at the
leading edge only, allowing it to spread into the wet turpentine.
Further brushing with a clean, dry wide brush ensures an even blend.
Leave to dry again and the effect should be as shown in Photograph 27.
Be sure to use a tough, adhesive masking tape or film and burnish it
down along the edges. Any ‘bleed’ under the masking could cause some
big problems when the tapes come off! I apologise for not showing a
photograph of this phase, but I have to work very quickly to achieve
this effect and I could not stop half way through to take a picture.
Also evident in Photograph 27 are my rib
guides. I have carefully measured the positions of the ribs and marked
them onto the tape, making sure that the perspective is retained from
the tip of the left wing to the tip of the right. The intention here is
to ‘suggest’ the ribs beneath the fabric, not to make too much of
them. By not drawing the ribs directly onto the wing, I can make them as
strong or as subtle as I like without having to cover up my pencil marks
with thick paint. With the ribs in place, I can now put a few highlights
on them where the sun is catching the top of each ridge and then a lot
of weathering and scuffed paintwork can be added. This not only makes
the surface look less perfect, but also has the effect of simply making
it look more real. The addition of the ailerons – one up, one down –
completes the general surface of the wings and, in Photograph 28, you
can see the finished effect with all the masking removed. No wing struts
or their shadows have been painted yet.
As an aside (and forgive me if I’ve told this
one before in a previous WiP), I once had an interesting conversation
with an RFC pilot called Hamish, sadly no longer with us. I had noticed
in many WW1 photographs that the wings of the aircraft seemed to be
covered in tiny white marks. Was this just wear and tear, I asked.
“The planes were always covered in bird droppings,” he told me,
“and the droppings stripped the paint
off the fabric.” So there’s the answer. Just thought I’d share
that with you.
29 shows more progress with work on the undercarriage, tail skid and the
radiator on the upper wing all now in place and I have included a detail
photograph (30) which shows the radiator in close-up with some of the
attendant staining and streaking (and bird poo) clearly in evidence.
Time now to move to the fuselage. Prepare the red paint!
With everything allowed to dry, some more masking
is applied round the outline of the fuselage and over the cockpit, as
can be seen in Photograph 31. Just as with Lothar’s aircraft, a coat
of mid-tone red is applied, followed by the sheen on the curvature of
the fuselage and the shadow underneath. This is not a bright red. Paint was in very short supply at The Front and several
reports suggest that the red paint used on von Richthofen’s aircraft
was very thin and had been mixed with a small quantity of black to make
it go further. When applied to the varnished plywood of the
fuselage, it would probably have taken on a slightly more orange colour
than when applied to the fabric of the tail surfaces, so I’ll bear
this in mind as the painting progresses. It is also recorded that the
national insignia were simply painted over with this thin red coat, so I
have replicated this effect here and you may be able to see the
difference between Photographs 31 and 32 where I have done precisely
that with a thin glaze of paint and turpentine. Also added at this stage
is the strong shadow of the upper wing, although this is softened by a
purple-ish reflection on the metal surfaces forward of the cockpit.
Also visible in Photograph 32, some of the masking
has been removed to allow work to progress to the cockpit, pilot and
cabane struts, the outcome of which can be seen in Photographs 33 and
34, the latter being a detail shot in which it is possible to see the
guns, some paneling, the stenciling, the cockpit & pilot and some
general detailing and weathering. The sheen along the top of the
fuselage has been slightly strengthened, too, to add a little drama to
With the fuselage substantially complete, I now
turn my attention to the tailplane, which I paint in two sections –
the fixed part first, as in Photograph 35 and then the dipped elevator,
as in Photograph 36. All the details, elevator controls, hinges, etc are
added now, as is the shadow of the fin and rudder.
The final stages now happen quite quickly. Before
the tailfin is added, I finally get to work on the ‘V’ struts
between the wings, all the rigging wires and then all the shadows cast
by these features and then straight on to fill in the last white areas
of my canvas. The fin and rudder are painted as a single block of colour,
followed by the national insignia and the red glaze ‘slush coat’ as
used on the fuselage, before the break between the rudder and fin is
added together with the ribs beneath the rudder fabric, all this clearly
visible in Photographs 37 and 38. All that remains to do now, is flick
round with some pure white to put highlights on various points where the
sun is glinting and a general once-over to tie all the elements
And that’s it. My signature is added last of all
to the bottom left-hand corner and the finished painting is set aside to
dry thoroughly before a coat of light Retouching varnish is applied to
So Photograph 39 shows the finished item and
Photograph 40 is the detail shot of the RE8’s that I promised earlier
I hope you’ve enjoyed watching this painting
progress from blank canvas to completed painting. I’ve enjoyed sharing
it with you - and it’s lucky that I have every confidence in myself as
posting a Work in Progress in ‘real’ time means that I have
to get it right, which is a bit nerve-wracking! I just hope that I’ve
done the subject some justice.
, December 2010.
Windsor & Newton Linen 36” x 24”
Daler Rowney Georgian Oil Colour
All the WW1 originals are produced in oils on
20"x30" canvas, primed with four coats of Gesso primer. The
picture is roughly marked up in pencil, then given another thin coat of
primer to seal it. When dry, each painting is given a lick of retouching
varnish before being photographed using polarised light, ready for
reproduction. The painting is then left to harden before delivery.
The edge of a completed canvas, showing the primer
Previous Works in Progress:
WW1 Aces Hundredth Painting WIP
Wolfram von Richthofen
Major Edward Mannock
Hans von Keudell
Battle of the Nile
Breaking the Line
Hearts of Oak
HMS Vanguard at Portsmouth
Prelude to Trafalgar
Battle of Copenhagen
Trafalgar 1st Engagement
Trafalgar - Bucentaure